? ShadowEth:公有区块链上的私有智能合约
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Journal of Computer Science and Technology 2018, Vol. 33 Issue (3) :542-556    DOI: 10.1007/s11390-018-1839-y
Special Section on Blockchain and Cryptocurrency Systems << Previous Articles | Next Articles >>
ShadowEth:公有区块链上的私有智能合约
Rui Yuan1, Student Member, CCF, Yu-Bin Xia1,*, Senior Member, CCF, Member, ACM, IEEE Hai-Bo Chen1, Distinguished Member, CCF, Senior Member, ACM, IEEE Bin-Yu Zang1, Distinguished Member, CCF, Member, ACM, IEEE, Jan Xie2
1 Institute of Parallel and Distributed Systems, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China;
2 Cryptape Inc., Hangzhou 310007, China
ShadowEth: Private Smart Contract on Public Blockchain
Rui Yuan1, Student Member, CCF, Yu-Bin Xia1,*, Senior Member, CCF, Member, ACM, IEEE Hai-Bo Chen1, Distinguished Member, CCF, Senior Member, ACM, IEEE Bin-Yu Zang1, Distinguished Member, CCF, Member, ACM, IEEE, Jan Xie2
1 Institute of Parallel and Distributed Systems, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China;
2 Cryptape Inc., Hangzhou 310007, China

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摘要 区块链作为一种可靠的分布式账本,可以在不需要可信的第三方机构介入的前提下,在互不信任的参与者之间完成交易,同时保证交易的安全性。这种去中心化的特征使得区块链技术逐渐被大众关注,且有着越发广泛的应用场景。最近兴起的一些区块链系统,例如以太坊,可以在区块链网络上支持智能合约。不同于比特币系统的单纯交易执行和验证操作,矿工们可以在区块链网络上运行任何用户定义的程序。然而出于对安全性的考虑,区块链本身的数据必须允许任意参与者查看和验证,这便导致所有的合约数据都会暴露给大众,也就没有任何隐私可言。隐私性问题是当前限制区块链和智能合约发展的关键问题。
本文提出了一种针对基于公有区块链的智能合约的隐私性的改善方案——ShadowEth,利用可信硬件来保护智能合约的隐私性,同时借助现有的成熟的公有区块链系统,例如以太坊,来保证智能合约的完整性和可用性。
ShadowEth将当前智能合约的执行验证过程解耦。在链下利用硬件提供的可信执行环境搭建一个安全且隐私的平台,用于智能合约的存储和执行,而只将合约的验证过程放在链上,利用一个专用的智能合约Bounty Contract来负责处理链上的验证逻辑,从而避免了修改当前智能合约系统的底层实现,使之可以运行在任何智能合约系统中。另外通过密码学方法来进行验证以及必要的请求和响应数据的传输,避免了敏感数据在传输过程中被窃取或篡改。文章介绍了ShadowEth的设计,包括系统架构以及加密通信和验证的协议,并通过一些用例来阐述了ShadowEth的可行性和应用场景。我们利用Intel软件防护扩展(SGX)在以太坊上实现了一个原型,并分析了系统的安全性和可用性。
关键词区块链   智能合约   隐私性   可信执行环境   硬件保护     
Abstract: Blockchain is becoming popular as a distributed and reliable ledger which allows distrustful parties to transact safely without trusting third parties. Emerging blockchain systems like Ethereum support smart contracts where miners can run arbitrary user-defined programs. However, one of the biggest concerns about the blockchain and the smart contract is privacy, since all the transactions on the chain are exposed to the public. In this paper, we present ShadowEth, a system that leverages hardware enclave to ensure the confidentiality of smart contracts while keeping the integrity and availability based on existing public blockchains like Ethereum. ShadowEth establishes a confidential and secure platform protected by Trusted Execution Environment (TEE) off the public blockchain for the execution and storage of private contracts. It only puts the process of verification on the blockchain. We provide a design of our system including a protocol of the cryptographic communication and verification and show the applicability and feasibility of the ShadowEth by various case studies. We implement a prototype using the Intel SGX on the Ethereum network and analyze the security and availability of the system.
Keywordsblockchain   smart contract   privacy   TEE   hardware-enclave     
Received 2017-11-14;
本文基金:

This work was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China under Grant No. 2016YFB1000104, the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 61572314 and 61525204, and the Young Scientists Fund of the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 61303011.

通讯作者: Yu-Bin Xia     Email: xiayubin@sjtu.edu.cn
About author: Rui Yuan is currently a postgraduate student of the Institute of Parallel and Distributed Systems, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai. His research interests include blockchain and system security.
引用本文:   
Rui Yuan, Yu-Bin Xia, Hai-Bo Chen, Bin-Yu Zang, Jan Xie.ShadowEth:公有区块链上的私有智能合约[J]  Journal of Computer Science and Technology , 2018,V33(3): 542-556
Rui Yuan, Yu-Bin Xia, Hai-Bo Chen, Bin-Yu Zang, Jan Xie.ShadowEth: Private Smart Contract on Public Blockchain[J]  Journal of Computer Science and Technology, 2018,V33(3): 542-556
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