Abstract In wireless sensor networks, sensed information is expected to be reliably and timely delivered to a sink in an ad-hoc way. However, it is challenging to achieve this goal because of the highly dynamic topology induced from asynchronous duty cycles and temporally and spatially varying link quality among nodes. Currently some opportunistic forwarding protocols have been proposed to address the challenge. However, they involve complicated mechanisms to determine the best forwarder at each hop, which incurs heavy overheads for the resource-constrained nodes. In this paper, we propose a light-weight opportunistic forwarding (LWOF) scheme. Different from other recently proposed opportunistic forwarding schemes, LWOF employs neither historical network information nor a contention process to select a forwarder prior to data transmissions. It confines forwarding candidates to an optimized area, and takes advantage of the preamble in low-power-listening (LPL) MAC protocols and dual-channel communication to forward a packet to a unique downstream node towards the sink with a high probability, without making a forwarding decision prior to data transmission. Under LWOF, we optimize LPL MAC protocol to have a shortened preamble (LWMAC), based on a theoretical analysis on the relationship among preamble length, delivery probability at each hop, node density and sleep duration. Simulation results show that LWOF, along with LWMAC, can achieve relatively good performance in terms of delivery reliability and latency, as a receiver-based opportunistic forwarding protocol, while reducing energy consumption per packet by at least twice
This work is supported in part by the International Science and Technology (S&T) Cooperation Program of China (ISTCP) under Grant No. 2013DFA10690, and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) under Grant Nos. 61672498, 61303246 and 61100180.
About author: Hai-Ming Chen is an assistant professor at the Institute of Computing Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing. His research areas include wireless, ad hoc, sensor networks, and networked embedded computing systems. He is a member of CCF, ACM, IEEE.
Cite this article:
Hai-Ming Chen, Li Cui, Gang Zhou.A Light-Weight Opportunistic Forwarding Protocol with Optimized Preamble Length for Low-Duty-Cycle Wireless Sensor Networks[J] Journal of Computer Science and Technology, 2017,V32(1): 168-180
 Dong W, Liu Y, He Y, Zhu T, Chen C. Measurement and analysis on the packet delivery performance in a large-scale sensor network. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, 2014, 22(6):1952-1963. Liang C J M, Priyantha B, Liu J, Terzis A. Surviving Wi-Fi interference in low power ZigBee networks. In Proc. the 8th ACM SenSys, Nov. 2010, pp.309-322. Kong L, Xia M, Liu X Y, Wu M Y, Liu X. Data loss and reconstruction in sensor networks. In Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, April 2013, pp.1654-1662. Hao J, Zhang B, Mouftah H. Routing protocols for duty cycled wireless sensor networks:A survey. IEEE Communications Magazine, 2012, 50(12):116-123. Gnawali O, Fonseca R, Jamieson K, Moss D, Levis P. Collection tree protocol. In Proc. the 7th ACM SenSys, Nov. 2009, pp.1-14. Ye W, Silva F, Heidemann J. Ultra-low duty cycle MAC with scheduled channel polling. In Proc. the 4th ACM SenSys, Oct. 31-Nov. 3, 2006, pp.321-334. Zhu Y, Liu Y, Ni L. Optimizing event detection in low dutycycled sensor networks. ACM Wireless Networks (WINET), 2012, 18(3):241-255. Liu Y, He Y, Li M, Wang J, Liu K, Li X Y. Does wireless sensor network scale? A measurement study on GreenOrbs. IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, 2013, 24(10):1983-1993. Gu Y, He T. Data forwarding in extremely low duty-cycle sensor networks with unreliable communication links. In Proc. the 5th ACM SenSys, Nov. 2007, pp.321-334. Liu S, Fan K W, Sinha P. CMAC:An energy efficient MAC layer protocol using convergent packet forwarding for wireless sensor networks. In Proc. the 4th IEEE SECON Merged with IWWAN, Jun. 2007, pp.11-20. Chau C K, Basu P. Exact analysis of latency of stateless opportunistic forwarding. In Proc. the 28th IEEE INFOCOM, April 2009, pp.828-836. Kim J, Lin X, Shroff N. Optimal anycast technique for delay-sensitive energy-constrained asynchronous sensor networks. In Proc. the 28th IEEE INFOCOM, Apr. 2009, pp.612-620. Naveen K, Kumar A. Tunable locally-optimal geographical forwarding in wireless sensor networks with sleep-wake cycling nodes. In Proc. the 29th IEEE INFOCOM, March 2010, pp.920-928. Xue Y, Vuran M, Ramamurthy B. Cost efficiency of anycast-based forwarding in duty-cycled WSNs with lossy channel. In Proc. the 17th IEEE SECON, Jun. 2010, pp.520-528. Chen D, Deng J, Varshney P. On the forwarding area of contention-based geographic forwarding for ad hoc and sensor networks. In Proc. IEEE SECON, Sept. 2005, pp.130-141. Polastre J, Hill J, Culler D. Versatile low power media access for wireless sensor networks. In Proc. the 2nd ACM SenSys, Nov. 2004, pp.95-107. Karp B, Kung H T. GPSR:Greedy perimeter stateless routing for wireless networks. In Proc. the 6th ACM MobiCom, Aug. 2000, pp.243-254. Seada K, Zuniga M, Helmy A, Krishnamachari B. Energyefficient forwarding strategies for geographic routing in lossy wireless sensor networks. In Proc. the 2nd ACM SenSys, Nov. 2004, pp.108-121. Lee S, Bhattacharjee B, Banerjee S. Efficient geographic routing in multihop wireless networks. In Proc. the 6th ACM MobiHoc, May 2005, pp.230-241. Larsson P, Johansson N. Multiuser diversity forwarding in multihop packet radio networks. In Proc. IEEE WCNC, Mar. 2005, pp.2188-2194. Keally M, Zhou G, Xing G. Sidewinder:A predictive data forwarding protocol for mobile wireless sensor networks. In Proc. the 6th IEEE SECON, June 2009. Hao J, Yao Z, Huang K, Zhang B, Li C. An energy-efficient routing protocol with controllable expected delay in dutycycled wireless sensor networks. In Proc. IEEE ICC, Jun. 2013, pp.6215-6219. Zorzi M, Rao R. Energy and latency performance of geographic random forwarding for ad hoc and sensor networks. In Proc. IEEE WCNC, Mar. 2003, pp.1930-1935. Füssler H, Widmer J, Käemann M, Mauve M, Hartenstein H. Contention-based forwarding for mobile ad hoc networks. Ad Hoc Networks, 2003, 1(4):351-369. He T, Blum B, Cao Q, Stankovic J, Son S, Abdelzaher T. Robust and timely communication over highly dynamic sensor networks. Real-Time Systems, 2007, 37(3):261-289. Huang P, Chen H, Xing G, Tan Y. SGF:A state-free gradient-based forwarding protocol for wireless sensor networks. ACM Transactions on Sensor Networks, 2009, 5(2):14:1-14:25. Li L, Sun L, Ma J, Chen C. A receiver-based opportunistic forwarding protocol for mobile sensor networks. In Proc. the 28th IEEE ICDCS, June 2008, pp.198-203. Biswas S, Morris R. ExOR:Opportunistic multi-hop routing for wireless networks. ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review, 2005, 35(4):133-144. Cao Z, He Y, Liu Y. L2:Lazy forwarding in low duty cycle wireless sensor networks. In Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Mar. 2012, pp.1323-1331. Unterschütz S, Renner C, Turau V. Opportunistic, receiverinitiated data-collection protocol. In Proc. the 9th EWSN, Feb. 2012, pp.1-16. Landsiedel O, Ghadimi E, Duguennoy S, Johansson M. Low power, low delay:Opportunistic routing meets duty cycling. In Proc. the 11th ACM IPSN, Apr. 2012, pp.185-196. Duquennoy S, Landsiedel O, Voigt T. Let the tree bloom:Scalable opportunistic routing with ORPL. In Proc. the 11th ACM SenSys, Nov. 2013, pp.2:1-2:14. Autenrieth M, Frey H. PaderMAC:A low-power, lowlatency MAC layer with opportunistic forwarding support for wireless sensor networks. In Proc. the 10th ADHOCNOW, July 2011, pp.117-130. Buettner M, Yee G, Anderson E, Han R. X-MAC:A short preamble MAC protocol for duty-cycled wireless sensor networks. In Proc. the 4th ACM SenSys, Oct.31-Nov.3, 2006, pp.307-320. Chen H, Cui L, Li V O. Joint design of opportunistic forwarding and energy-efficient MAC protocol in wireless sensor networks. In Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM, Nov.3-Dec.4, 2009. Liu Y, Yang Z, Wang X, Jian L. Location, localization, and localizability. Journal of Computer Science and Technology (JCST), 2010, 25(2):274-297. Ansari J, Zhang X, Mähönen P. Multi-radio medium access control protocol for wireless sensor networks. International Journal of Sensor Networks, 2010, 8(1):47-61. Zhou G, He T, Krishnamurthy S, Stankovic J A. Impact of radio irregularity on wireless sensor networks. In Proc. the 2nd ACM MobiSys, June 2004. Zhu H, Wang J. Chunk-based resource allocation in OFDMA systems-part Ⅱ:Joint chunk, power and bit allocation. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 2012, 60(2):499-509. Takaishi D, Nishiyama H, Kato N, Miura R. Toward energy efficient big data gathering in densely distributed sensor networks. IEEE Transactions on Emerging Topics in Computing, 2014, 2(3):388-397. Zeng X, Bagrodia R, Gerla M. Glo-MoSim:A library for parallel simulation of large-scale wireless networks. In Proc. the 12th IEEE PADS, May 1998, pp.154-161. Shnayder V, Hempstead M, Chen B, Werner-Allen G, Welsh M. Simulating the power consumption of large-scale sensor network applications. In Proc. the 2nd ACM SenSys, Nov. 2004, pp.188-200.