Abstract Modern supply chain is a complex system and plays an important role for different sectors under the globalization economic integration background. Supply chain management system is proposed to handle the increasing complexity and improve the efficiency of flows of goods. It is also useful to prevent potential frauds and guarantee trade compliance. Currently, most companies maintain their own IT systems for supply chain management. However, it is hard for these isolated systems to work together and provide a global view of the status of the highly distributed supply chain system. Using emerging decentralized ledger/blockchain technology, which is a special type of distributed system in essence, to build supply chain management system is a promising direction to go. Decentralized ledger usually suffers from low performance and lack of capability to protect information stored on the ledger. To overcome these challenges, we propose CoC (supply chain on blockchain), a novel supply chain management system based on a hybrid decentralized ledger with a novel twostep block construction mechanism. We also design an efficient storage scheme and information protection method that satisfy requirements of supply chain management. These techniques can also be applied to other decentralized ledger based applications with requirements similar to supply chain management.
This material is based upon the work supported by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) under Grant Award No. 2015-ST-061-BSH001 and the National Nature Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 91746111.
About author: Zhimin Gao received his B.S. degree in software engineering from South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, in 2009, and his Ph.D. degree in computer science from University of Houston, Houston, in 2017. He is currently working as a post-doctoral fellow at University of Houston, Houston. His research interests include blockchain, high-performance computing and cloud computing
Cite this article:
Zhimin Gao, Lei Xu, Lin Chen, Xi Zhao, Yang Lu, Weidong Shi.CoC: A Unified Distributed Ledger Based Supply Chain Management System[J] Journal of Computer Science and Technology, 2018,V33(2): 237-248
 Laseter T, Oliver K. When will supply chain management grow up? Strategy + Business, 2003. https://www.strategy-business.com/article/03304, Jan. 2018. Dai J, Ding Z M, Xu J J. Context-based moving object trajectory uncertainty reduction and ranking in road network. Journal of Computer Science and Technology, 2016, 31(1):167-184. Liu H L, Chen Q, Li Z H. Optimization techniques for RFID complex event processing. Journal of Computer Science and Technology, 2009, 24(4):723-733. He W, Tan E L, Lee E W, Li T Y. A solution for integrated track and trace in supply chain based on RFID & GPS. In Proc. IEEE Conf. Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation, September 2009. Lindner M, Marquez F G, Chapman C, Clayman S, Henriksson D, Elmroth E. The cloud supply chain:A framework for information, monitoring, accounting and billing. In Proc. the 2nd Int. ICST Conf. Cloud Computing, October 2010. Gazet A. Comparative analysis of various ransomware virii. Journal in Computer Virology, 2010, 6(1):77-90. Garay J, Kiayias A, Leonardos N. The Bitcoin backbone protocol:Analysis and applications. In Proc. the 34th Annual Int. Conf. the Theory and Applications of Cryptographic Techniques, April 2015, pp.281-310. Lemieux V L. Trusting records:Is blockchain technology the answer? Records Management Journal, 2016, 26(2):110-139. Morabito V. Blockchain practices. In Business Innovation Through Blockchain:The B3 Perspective, Morabito V (ed.), Springer, 2017, pp.145-166. Lehmacher W. Global dynamics and key trends. In The Global Supply Chain:How Technology and Circular Thinking Transform Our Future, Lehmacher W (ed.), Springer, 2017, pp.67-112. Cooper M C, Lambert D M, Pagh J D. Supply chain management:More than a new name for logistics. The International Journal of Logistics Management, 1997, 8(1):1-14. Fox M S, Chionglo J F, Barbuceanu M. The integrated supply chain management system. Technical Report, Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 1993. Buterin V. What proof of stake is and why it matters. Bitcoin Magazine, 2013. https://bitcoinmagazine.com/articles/what-proof-of-stake-is-and-why-it-matters-1377531463, Jan. 2018. Xu X W, Pautasso C, Zhu L M, Gramoli V, Ponomarev A, Tran A B, Chen S P. The blockchain as a software connector. In Proc the 13th Working IEEE/IFIP Conf. Software Architecture, April 2016, pp.182-191. Castro M, Liskov B. Practical Byzantine fault tolerance and proactive recovery. ACM Trans. Computer Systems, 2002, 20(4):398-461. Lamport L, Shostak R, Pease M. The Byzantine Generals Problem. ACM Trans. Programming Languages and Systems, 1982, 4(3):382-401. Kermarrec A M, van Steen M. Gossiping in distributed systems. ACM SIGOPS Operating Systems Review, 2007, 41(5):2-7. Lamport L. The part-time parliament. ACM Trans. Computer Systems, 1998, 16(2):133-169. Eyal I, Gencer A E, Sirer E G, van Renesse R. BitcoinNG:A scalable blockchain protocol. In Proc. the 13th USENIX Conf. Networked Systems Design and Implementation, March 2016, pp.45-59. Lewison K, Corella F. Backing rich credentials with a blockchain PKI. Technical Report, Pomcor, 2016. https://pomcor.com/techreports/BlockchainPKI.pdf, Jan. 2018. Al-Bassam M. SCPKI:A smart contract-based PKI and identity system. In Proc. the ACM Workshop on Blockchain Cryptocurrencies and Contracts, April 2017, pp.35-40. Xu L, Wu X X, Zhang X W. CL-PRE:A certificateless proxy re-encryption scheme for secure data sharing with public cloud. In Proc. the 7th ACM Symp. Information Computer and Communications Security, May 2012, pp.87-88. Bethencourt J, Sahai A, Waters B. Ciphertext-policy attribute-based encryption. In Proc. IEEE Symp. Security and Privacy, May 2007, pp.321-334. Vukolic M. The quest for scalable blockchain fabric:Proofof-work vs. BFT replication. In Proc. the Int. Workshop on Open Problems in Network Security, October 2015, pp.112-125. Vukolic M. Rethinking permissioned blockchains. In Proc. the ACM Workshop on Blockchain Cryptocurrencies and Contracts, April 2017, pp.3-7. Guerraoui R, Knezevic N, Quema V, Vukolic M. The next 700 BFT protocols. In Proc. the 5th European Conf. Computer Systems, April 2010, pp.363-376. Kotla R, Dahlin M. High throughput Byzantine fault tolerance. In Proc. Int. Conf. Dependable Systems and Networks, July 2004, pp.575-584. Croman K, Decker C, Eyal I, Gencer A E, Juels A, Kosba A, Miller A, Saxena P, Shi E, Sirer E G, Song D, Wattenhofer R. On scaling decentralized blockchains. In Proc. Int. Conf. Financial Cryptography and Data Security, February 2016, pp.106-125. Cachin C. Architecture of the hyperledger blockchain fabric. In Proc. the Workshop on Distributed Cryptocurrencies and Consensus Ledgers, July 2016. Wood T, Singh R, Venkataramani A, Shenoy P, Cecchet E. ZZ and the art of practical BFT execution. In Proc. the 6th Conf. Computer Systems, April 2011, pp.123-138. Korpela K, Hallikas J, Dahlberg T. Digital supply chain transformation toward blockchain integration. In Proc. the 50th Hawaii Int. Conf. System Sciences, Jan. 2017, pp.4182-4191. Tian F. An agri-food supply chain traceability system for China based on RFID & blockchain technology. In Proc. the 13th Int. Conf. Service Systems and Service Management, June 2016, pp.1-6. Abeyratne S A, Monfared R P. Blockchain ready manufacturing supply chain using distributed ledger. International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology, 2016, 5(9):1-10. Milutinovic M, He W, Wu H, Kanwal M. Proof of luck:An efficient blockchain consensus protocol. In Proc. the 1st Workshop on System Software for Trusted Execution, Dec. 2016, Article No. 2. Intel. Blockchain and its emerging role in healthcare and health-related research. Technical Report 4150-45-P, 2016. https://s3.amazonaws.com/public-inspection.federalregister.gov/2016-16133.pdf, Jan. 2018.