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Journal of Computer Science and Technology
2018 Vol.33 No.2
Published 2018-03-05

Special Section on Computer Networks and Distributed Computing
Artificial Intelligence and Pattern Recognition
Data Management and Data Mining
Theory and Algorithms
Computer Graphics and Multimedia
Special Section on Computer Networks and Distributed Computing
237 Zhimin Gao, Lei Xu, Lin Chen, Xi Zhao, Yang Lu, Weidong Shi
CoC: A Unified Distributed Ledger Based Supply Chain Management System
Modern supply chain is a complex system and plays an important role for different sectors under the globalization economic integration background. Supply chain management system is proposed to handle the increasing complexity and improve the efficiency of flows of goods. It is also useful to prevent potential frauds and guarantee trade compliance. Currently, most companies maintain their own IT systems for supply chain management. However, it is hard for these isolated systems to work together and provide a global view of the status of the highly distributed supply chain system. Using emerging decentralized ledger/blockchain technology, which is a special type of distributed system in essence, to build supply chain management system is a promising direction to go. Decentralized ledger usually suffers from low performance and lack of capability to protect information stored on the ledger. To overcome these challenges, we propose CoC (supply chain on blockchain), a novel supply chain management system based on a hybrid decentralized ledger with a novel twostep block construction mechanism. We also design an efficient storage scheme and information protection method that satisfy requirements of supply chain management. These techniques can also be applied to other decentralized ledger based applications with requirements similar to supply chain management.
2018 Vol. 33 (2): 237-248 [Abstract] ( 231 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 593KB] ( 323 )
249 Seilendria A. Hadiwardoyo, Subhadeep Patra, Carlos T. Calafate, Juan-Carlos Cano, Pietro Manzoni
An Intelligent Transportation System Application for Smartphones Based on Vehicle Position Advertising and Route Sharing in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks
Alerting drivers about incoming emergency vehicles and their routes can greatly improve their travel time in congested cities, while reducing the risk of accidents due to distractions. This paper contributes to this goal by proposing Messiah, an Android application capable of informing regular vehicles about incoming emergency vehicles like ambulances, police cars and fire brigades. This is made possible by creating a network of vehicles capable of directly communicating between them. The user can, therefore, take driving decisions in a timely manner by considering incoming alerts. Using the support of our GRCBox hardware, the application can rely on vehicular ad-hoc network communications in the 5 GHz band, being V2V (vehicle-to-vehicle) communication provided through a combination of Android-based smartphone and our GRCBox device. The application was tested in three different scenarios with different levels of obstruction, showing that it is capable of providing alerts up to 300 meters, and notifying vehicles within less than one second.
2018 Vol. 33 (2): 249-262 [Abstract] ( 114 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 7175KB] ( 103 )
263 Nour El Houda Bahloul, Saadi Boudjit, Marwen Abdennebi, Djallel Eddine Boubiche
A Flocking-Based on Demand Routing Protocol for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
The interest shown by some community of researchers to autonomous drones or UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles) has increased with the advent of wireless communication networks. These networks allow UAVs to cooperate more efficiently in an ad hoc manner in order to achieve specific tasks in specific environments. To do so, each drone navigates autonomously while staying connected with other nodes in its group via radio links. This connectivity can deliberately be maintained for a while constraining the mobility of the drones. This will be suitable for the drones involved in a given path of a given transmission between a source and a destination. This constraint could be removed at the end of the transmission process and the mobility of each concerned drone becomes again independent from the others. In this work, we proposed a flocking-based routing protocol for UAVs called BR-AODV. The protocol takes advantage of a well known ad hoc routing protocol for on-demand route computation, and the Boids of Reynolds mechanism for connectivity and route maintaining while data is being transmitted. Moreover, an automatic ground base stations discovery mechanism has been introduced for a proactive drones and ground networks association needed for the context of real-time applications. The performance of BR-AODV was evaluated and compared with that of classical AODV routing protocol and the results show that BR-AODV outperforms AODV in terms of delay, throughput and packet loss.
2018 Vol. 33 (2): 263-276 [Abstract] ( 107 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 1822KB] ( 211 )
277 Yang Li, Zhi-Ping Cai, Hong Xu
LLMP: Exploiting LLDP for Latency Measurement in Software-Defined Data Center Networks
The administrators of data center networks have to continually monitor path latency to detect network anomaly quickly and ensure the efficient operation of the networks. In this work, we propose Link Layer Measurement Protocol (LLMP), a prototype latency measuring framework based on the Link Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP). LLDP is utilized by the controller to discover network topology dynamically. We insert timestamps into the optional LLDPTLV field in LLDP, so that the controller can estimate latency on any single link. The framework utilizes a reactive measurement approach without injecting any probe packets to the network. Our experiments show that the latency of a link can be measured accurately by LLMP. In relatively complex network conditions, LLMP can still maintain a high accuracy. We store the LLMP measurement results into a latency matrix, which can be used to infer the path latency.
2018 Vol. 33 (2): 277-285 [Abstract] ( 130 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 1838KB] ( 126 )
Artificial Intelligence and Pattern Recognition
286 Mehdi Azaouzi, Lotfi Ben Romdhane
An Efficient Two-Phase Model for Computing Influential Nodes in Social Networks Using Social Actions
The measurement of influence in social networks has received a lot of attention in the data mining community. Influence maximization refers to the process of finding influential users who make the most of information or product adoption. In real settings, the influence of a user in a social network can be modeled by the set of actions (e.g., "like", "share", "retweet", "comment") performed by other users of the network on his/her publications. To the best of our knowledge, all proposed models in the literature treat these actions equally. However, it is obvious that a "like" of a publication means less influence than a "share" of the same publication. This suggests that each action has its own level of influence (or importance). In this paper, we propose a model (called Social Action-Based Influence Maximization Model, SAIM) for influence maximization in social networks. In SAIM, actions are not considered equally in measuring the "influence power" of an individual, and it is composed of two major steps. In the first step, we compute the influence power of each individual in the social network. This influence power is computed from user actions using PageRank. At the end of this step, we get a weighted social network in which each node is labeled by its influence power. In the second step of SAIM, we compute an optimal set of influential nodes using a new concept named "influence-BFS tree". Experiments conducted on large-scale real-world and synthetic social networks reveal the good performance of our model SAIM in computing, in acceptable time scales, a minimal set of influential nodes allowing the maximum spreading of information.
2018 Vol. 33 (2): 286-304 [Abstract] ( 106 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 2457KB] ( 130 )
305 Geng Lin, Jian Guan
A Binary Particle Swarm Optimization for the Minimum Weight Dominating Set Problem
The minimum weight dominating set problem (MWDSP) is an NP-hard problem with a lot of real-world applications. Several heuristic algorithms have been presented to produce good quality solutions. However, the solution time of them grows very quickly as the size of the instance increases. In this paper, we propose a binary particle swarm optimization (FBPSO) for solving the MWDSP approximately. Based on the characteristic of MWDSP, this approach designs a new position updating rule to guide the search to a promising area. An iterated greedy tabu search is used to enhance the solution quality quickly. In addition, several stochastic strategies are employed to diversify the search and prevent premature convergence. These methods maintain a good balance between the exploration and the exploitation. Experimental studies on 106 groups of 1 060 instances show that FBPSO is able to identify near optimal solutions in a short running time. The average deviation between the solutions obtained by FBPSO and the best known solutions is 0.441%. Moreover, the average solution time of FBPSO is much less than that of other existing algorithms. In particular, with the increasing of instance size, the solution time of FBPSO grows much more slowly than that of other existing algorithms.
2018 Vol. 33 (2): 305-322 [Abstract] ( 74 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 368KB] ( 105 )
323 Ji-Zhao Zhu, Yan-Tao Jia, Jun Xu, Jian-Zhong Qiao, Xue-Qi Cheng
Modeling the Correlations of Relations for Knowledge Graph Embedding
Knowledge graph embedding, which maps the entities and relations into low-dimensional vector spaces, has demonstrated its effectiveness in many tasks such as link prediction and relation extraction. Typical methods include TransE, TransH, and TransR. All these methods map different relations into the vector space separately and the intrinsic correlations of these relations are ignored. It is obvious that there exist some correlations among relations because different relations may connect to a common entity. For example, the triples (Steve Jobs, PlaceOfBrith, California) and (Apple Inc., Location, California) share the same entity California as their tail entity. We analyze the embedded relation matrices learned by TransE/TransH/TransR, and find that the correlations of relations do exist and they are showed as low-rank structure over the embedded relation matrix. It is natural to ask whether we can leverage these correlations to learn better embeddings for the entities and relations in a knowledge graph. In this paper, we propose to learn the embedded relation matrix by decomposing it as a product of two low-dimensional matrices, for characterizing the low-rank structure. The proposed method, called TransCoRe (Translation-Based Method via Modeling the Correlations of Relations), learns the embeddings of entities and relations with translation-based framework. Experimental results based on the benchmark datasets of WordNet and Freebase demonstrate that our method outperforms the typical baselines on link prediction and triple classification tasks.
2018 Vol. 33 (2): 323-334 [Abstract] ( 88 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 417KB] ( 175 )
335 Qian Wang, You-Dong Ding
A Novel Fine-Grained Method for Vehicle Type Recognition Based on the Locally Enhanced PCANet Neural Network
In this paper, we propose a locally enhanced PCANet neural network for fine-grained classification of vehicles. The proposed method adopts the PCANet unsupervised network with a smaller number of layers and simple parameters compared with the majority of state-of-the-art machine learning methods. It simplifies calculation steps and manual labeling, and enables vehicle types to be recognized without time-consuming training. Experimental results show that compared with the traditional pattern recognition methods and the multi-layer CNN methods, the proposed method achieves optimal balance in terms of varying scales of sample libraries, angle deviations, and training speed. It also indicates that introducing appropriate local features that have different scales from the general feature is very instrumental in improving recognition rate. The 7-angle in 180° (12-angle in 360°) classification modeling scheme is proven to be an effective approach, which can solve the problem of suffering decrease in recognition rate due to angle deviations, and add the recognition accuracy in practice.
2018 Vol. 33 (2): 335-350 [Abstract] ( 99 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 3681KB] ( 132 )
Data Management and Data Mining
351 Peng-Peng Chen, Hai-Long Sun, Yi-Li Fang, Jin-Peng Huai
Collusion-Proof Result Inference in Crowdsourcing
In traditional crowdsourcing, workers are expected to provide independent answers to tasks so as to ensure the diversity of answers. However, recent studies show that the crowd is not a collection of independent workers, but instead that workers communicate and collaborate with each other. To pursue more rewards with little effort, some workers may collude to provide repeated answers, which will damage the quality of the aggregated results. Nonetheless, there are few efforts considering the negative impact of collusion on result inference in crowdsourcing. In this paper, we are specially concerned with the Collusion-Proof result inference problem for general crowdsourcing tasks in public platforms. To that end, we design a metric, the worker performance change rate, to identify the colluded answers by computing the difference of the mean worker performance before and after removing the repeated answers. Then we incorporate the collusion detection result into existing result inference methods to guarantee the quality of the aggregated results even with the occurrence of collusion behaviors. With real-world and synthetic datasets, we conducted an extensive set of evaluations of our approach. The experimental results demonstrate the superiority of our approach in comparison with the state-of-the-art methods.
2018 Vol. 33 (2): 351-365 [Abstract] ( 100 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 735KB] ( 129 )
366 An-Zhen Zhang, Jian-Zhong Li, Hong Gao, Yu-Biao Chen, Heng-Zhao Ma, Mohamed Jaward Bah
CrowdOLA: Online Aggregation on Duplicate Data Powered by Crowdsourcing
Recently there is an increasing need for interactive human-driven analysis on large volumes of data. Online aggregation (OLA), which provides a quick sketch of massive data before a long wait of the final accurate query result, has drawn significant research attention. However, the direct processing of OLA on duplicate data will lead to incorrect query answers, since sampling from duplicate records leads to an over representation of the duplicate data in the sample. This violates the prerequisite of uniform distributions in most statistical theories. In this paper, we propose CrowdOLA, a novel framework for integrating online aggregation processing with deduplication. Instead of cleaning the whole dataset, CrowdOLA retrieves block-level samples continuously from the dataset, and employs a crowd-based entity resolution approach to detect duplicates in the sample in a pay-as-you-go fashion. After cleaning the sample, an unbiased estimator is provided to address the error bias that is introduced by the duplication. We evaluate CrowdOLA on both real-world and synthetic workloads. Experimental results show that CrowdOLA provides a good balance between efficiency and accuracy.
2018 Vol. 33 (2): 366-379 [Abstract] ( 85 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 1368KB] ( 93 )
Theory and Algorithms
380 Shengmin Xu, Guomin Yang, Yi Mu
A New Revocable and Re-Delegable Proxy Signature and Its Application
With the popularity of cloud computing and mobile Apps, on-demand services such as on-line music or audio streaming and vehicle booking are widely available nowadays. In order to allow efficient delivery and management of the services, for large-scale on-demand systems, there is usually a hierarchy where the service provider can delegate its service to a top-tier (e.g., countrywide) proxy who can then further delegate the service to lower level (e.g., region-wide) proxies. Secure (re-)delegation and revocation are among the most crucial factors for such systems. In this paper, we investigate the practical solutions for achieving re-delegation and revocation utilizing proxy signature. Although proxy signature has been extensively studied in the literature, no previous solution can achieve both properties. To fill the gap, we introduce the notion of revocable and re-delegable proxy signature that supports efficient revocation and allows a proxy signer to re-delegate its signing right to other proxy signers without the interaction with the original signer. We define the formal security models for this new primitive and present an efficient scheme that can achieve all the security properties. We also present a secure on-line revocable and re-delegate vehicle ordering system (RRVOS) as one of the applications of our proposed scheme.
2018 Vol. 33 (2): 380-399 [Abstract] ( 104 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 1004KB] ( 183 )
400 Xi Wang, Jian-Xi Fan, Cheng-Kuan Lin, Jing-Ya Zhou, Zhao Liu
BCDC: A High-Performance, Server-Centric Data Center Network
The capability of the data center network largely decides the performance of cloud computing. However, the number of servers in the data center network becomes increasingly huge, because of the continuous growth of the application requirements. The performance improvement of cloud computing faces great challenges of how to connect a large number of servers in building a data center network with promising performance. Traditional tree-based data center networks have issues of bandwidth bottleneck, failure of single switch, etc. Recently proposed data center networks such as DCell, FiConn, and BCube, have larger bandwidth and better fault-tolerance with respect to traditional tree-based data center networks. Nonetheless, for DCell and FiConn, the fault-tolerant length of path between servers increases in case of failure of switches; BCube requires higher performance in switches when its scale is enlarged. Based on the above considerations, we propose a new server-centric data center network, called BCDC, based on crossed cube with excellent performance. Then, we study the connectivity of BCDC networks. Furthermore, we propose communication algorithms and fault-tolerant routing algorithm of BCDC networks. Moreover, we analyze the performance and time complexities of the proposed algorithms in BCDC networks. Our research will provide the basis for design and implementation of a new family of data center networks.
2018 Vol. 33 (2): 400-416 [Abstract] ( 101 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 3982KB] ( 90 )
Computer Graphics and Multimedia
417 Sunghun Jo, Yuna Jeong, Sungkil Lee
GPU-Driven Scalable Parser for OBJ Models
This paper presents a scalable parser framework using graphics processing units (GPUs) for massive text-based files. Specifically, our solution is designed to efficiently parse Wavefront OBJ models texts of which specify 3D geometries and their topology. Our work bases its scalability and efficiency on chunk-based processing. The entire parsing problem is subdivided into subproblems the chunk of which can be processed independently and merged seamlessly. The within-chunk processing is made highly parallel, leveraged by GPUs. Our approach thereby overcomes the bottlenecks of the existing OBJ parsers. Experiments performed to assess the performance of our system showed that our solutions significantly outperform the existing CPU-based solutions and GPU-based solutions as well.
2018 Vol. 33 (2): 417-428 [Abstract] ( 125 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 2409KB] ( 108 )
  SPONSORED BY INSTITUTE OF COMPUTING TECHNOLOGY THE CHINESE ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
  CHINA COMPUTER FEDERATION
  > SUPPORTED BY NSFC
  SUPPORTED BY CAST PROMOTION PROJECT FOR ELITE JOURNALS
  CO-PUBLISHED BY SCIENCE PRESS
  SPRINGER
Journal of Computer Science and Technology
   
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