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›› 2013,Vol. 28 ›› Issue (6): 1063-1084.

• Special Section on Selected Paper from NPC 2011 •

### 形状图逻辑和形状图系统

Zhao-Peng Li1, 2 (李兆鹏), Member, CCF, Yu Zhang1, 2, * (张昱), and Yi-Yun Chen1, 2 (陈意云), Member, CCF

• 收稿日期:2012-11-21 修回日期:2013-09-20 出版日期:2013-11-05 发布日期:2013-11-05
• 作者简介:Zhao-Peng Li is a postdoctoral researcher in School of Computer Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei. He received his Ph.D. degree in computer science from University of Science and Technology of China in 2008. His research interests include program verification, certifying compiler and theorem proving. He is a member of China Computer Federation.

### A Shape Graph Logic and A Shape System

Zhao-Peng Li1, 2 (李兆鹏), Member, CCF, Yu Zhang1, 2, * (张昱), and Yi-Yun Chen1, 2 (陈意云), Member, CCF

1. 1 School of Computer Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027, China;
2 Software Security Laboratory, Suzhou Institute for Advanced Study, University of Science and Technology of China Suzhou 215123, China
• Received:2012-11-21 Revised:2013-09-20 Online:2013-11-05 Published:2013-11-05
• Supported by:

This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 61003043, 61170018, the National High Technology Research and Development 863 Program of China under Grant No. 2012AA010901-2, and the Postdoctoral Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 2012M521250.

Abstract: Analysis and verification of pointer programs are still difficult problems so far. This paper uses a shape graph logic and a shape system to solve these problems in two stages. First, shape graphs at every program point are constructed using an analysis tool. Then, they are used to support the verification of other properties (e.g., orderedness). Our prototype supports automatic verification of programs manipulating complex data structures such as splay trees, treaps, AVL trees and AA trees, etc. The proposed shape graph logic, as an extension to Hoare logic, uses shape graphs directly as assertions. It can be used in the analysis and verification of programs manipulating mutable data structures. The benefit using shape graphs as assertions is that it is convenient for acquiring the relations between pointers in the verification stage. The proposed shape system requires programmers to provide lightweight shape declarations in recursive structure type declarations. It can help rule out programs that construct shapes deviating from what programmers expect (reflected in shape declarations) in the analysis stage. As a benefit, programmers need not provide specifications (e.g., pre-/post-conditions, loop invariants) about pointers. Moreover, we present a method doing verification in the second stage using traditional Hoare logic rules directly by eliminating aliasing with the aid of shape graphs. Thus, verification conditions could be discharged by general theorem provers.

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