›› 2013, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (1): 28-41.doi: 10.1007/s11390-013-1310-z

Special Issue: Computer Architecture and Systems

• Special Section on Selected Paper from NPC 2011 • Previous Articles     Next Articles

CSWL: Cross-SSD Wear-Leveling Method in SSD-Based RAID Systems for System Endurance and Performance

Yi-Mo Du (杜溢墨), Nong Xiao* (肖侬), Member, IEEE, Fang Liu (刘芳), Member, CCF and Zhi-Guang Chen (陈志广)   

  1. State Key Laboratory of High Performance Computing, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073, China
  • Received:2011-12-31 Revised:2012-03-30 Online:2013-01-05 Published:2013-01-05
  • Supported by:

    Supported by the National High Technology Research and Development 863 Program of China under Grant No. 2013AA013201, the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 61025009, 61232003, 61120106005, 61170288.

Flash memory has limited erasure/program cycles. Hence, to meet their advertised capacity all the time, flash- based solid state drives (SSDs) must prolong their life span through a wear-leveling mechanism. As a very important part of flash translation layer (FTL), wear leveling is usually implemented in SSD controllers, which is called internal wear leveling. However, there is no wear leveling among SSDs in SSD-based redundant array of independent disks (RAIDs) systems, making some SSDs wear out faster than others. Once an SSD fails, reconstruction must be triggered immediately, but the cost of this process is so high that both system reliability and availability are affected seriously. We therefore propose cross-SSD wear leveling (CSWL) to enhance the endurance of entire SSD-based RAID systems. Under the workload of random access pattern, parity stripes suffer from much more updates because updating to a data stripe will cause the modification of other all related parity stripes. Based on this principle, we introduce an age-driven parity distribution scheme to guarantee wear leveling among flash SSDs and thereby prolong the endurance of RAID systems. Furthermore, age-driven parity distribution benefits performance by maintaining better load balance. With insignificant overhead, CSWL can significantly improve both the life span and performance of SSD-based RAID.

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