›› 2014, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (4): 646-655.doi: 10.1007/s11390-014-1456-3

Special Issue: Computer Architecture and Systems

• Computer Architectures and Systems • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Scan-Based Attack on Stream Ciphers:A Case Study on eSTREAM Finalists

Min-Hui Zou1 (邹敏辉), Kun Ma2 (马坤), Kai-Jie Wu1,3,* (吴剀劼), Member, IEEE, and Edwin Hsing-Mean Sha1 (沙行勉), Senior Member, IEEE   

  1. 1. College of Computer Science, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China;
    2. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607, U.S.A.;
    3. Key Laboratory of Dependable Service Computing in Cyber Physical Society, Chongqing University, Ministry of Education Chongqing 400044, China
  • Online:2014-07-05 Published:2014-07-05
  • About author:Min-Hui Zou received the B.S. degree in computer science and technology from Chongqing University, China, in 2013. Currently he is a Ph.D. student majoring in computer science and technology of the College of Computer Science, Chongqing University. His current research interests include security of cryptographic system and side-channel attacks.
  • Supported by:

    This work is partially supported by the National High Technology Research and Development 863 Program of China under Grant No. 2013AA013202, the Key Programs for Science and Technology Development of Chongqing of China under Grant No. cstc2012ggC40005, the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 61173014, and the National Science Foundation of USA under Grant No. CNS-1015802.

While Scan-based DFT improves test efficiency, it also leaves a side channel to the privacy information stored in the chip. This paper investigates the side channel and proposes a simple yet powerful scan-based attack that can reveal the key and/or state stored in the chips that implement the state-of-the-art stream ciphers with less than 85 scan-out vectors.

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[2] Josephson D D, Poehhnan S, Govan V. Debug methodology for the McKinley processor. InProc. the International Test Conference, Nov. 2001, pp.451-460.

[3] Skorobogatov S P, Anderson R J. Optical fault induction attacks. In Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2523, Kaliski B S, Koç C K, Paar C (eds.), Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2002, pp.2-12.

[4] Yang B, Wu K, Karri R. Secure scan: A design-for-test architecture for crypto chips. IEEE Trans. Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, 2006, 25(10): 22872293.

[5] Kamal A A, Youssef A M. A scan-based side channel attack on the NTRUEncrypt cryptosystem. In Proc. the 7th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security, Aug. 2012, pp.402-409.

[6] Salehani Y E. Side channel attacks on symmetric key primitives [Master Thesis]. Concordia University, 2011. http://spectrum.library.concordia.ca/7765/1/EsmaeiliSalehani MASc F2011.pdf, May 2014.

[7] Preneel B. A survey of recent developments in cryptographic algorithms for smart cards. Computer Networks, 2007, 51(9): 2223-2233.

[8] Canteaut A. Open problems related to algebraic attacks on stream ciphers. In Lecture Notes in Computer Science 3969, Ytrehus ø(ed.), Springer Berlin Heidelberg, pp.120-134.

[9] Hell M, Johansson T, Meier W. Grain: A stream cipher for constrained environments. International Journal of Wireless and Mobile Computing, 2007, 2(1): 86-93.

[10] Liu Y, Wu K, Karri R. Scan-based attacks on linear feedback shift register based stream ciphers. ACM Trans. Design Automation of Electronic Systems, 2011, 16(2), Article No.20.

[11] Mukhopadhyay D, Banerjee S, Roychowdhury D et al. CryptoScan: A secured scan chain architecture. In Proc. the 14th Asian Test Sysmposium, Dec. 2005, pp.348-353.

[12] Lee J, Tehranipoor M, Patel C et al. Securing scan design using lock and key technique. In Proc. the 20th IEEE International Symposium on Defect and Fault Tolerance in VLSI Systems, Oct. 2005, pp.51-62.

[13] Lee J, Tehranipoor M, Plusquellic J. A low-cost solution for protecting IPs against scan-based side-channel attacks. In Proc. the 24th IEEE VLSI Test Symposium, April 30-May 4, 2006, pp.94-99.
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