Journal of Computer Science and Technology ›› 2021, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (3): 693-706.doi: 10.1007/s11390-020-0158-2

Special Issue: Data Management and Data Mining; Computer Networks and Distributed Computing

• Regular Paper • Previous Articles     Next Articles

SE-Chain: A Scalable Storage and Efficient Retrieval Model for Blockchain

Da-Yu Jia1, Jun-Chang Xin1,2,*, Member, CCF, Zhi-Qiong Wang3,4, Member, CCF, Han Lei5, and Guo-Ren Wang6, Senior Member, CCF        

  1. 1 School of Computer Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819, China;
    2 Key Laboratory of Big Data Management and Analytics of Liaoning Province, Shenyang 110819, China;
    3 College of Medicine and Biological Information Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110169, China;
    4 Neusoft Institute of Intelligent Healthcare Technology Co. Ltd., Shenyang 110179, China;
    5 School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798, Singapore;
    6 School of Computer Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China
  • Received:2019-11-04 Revised:2020-09-30 Online:2021-05-05 Published:2021-05-31
  • Contact: Jun-Chang Xin
  • About author:Da-Yu Jia received his B.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees in computer science and technology from the Northeastern University, Shenyang, in 2013, and 2016, respectively. He is currently a Ph.D. candidate in the computer science and engineering from Northeastern University, Shenyang. His research interests include blockchain data storage and blockchain data query.
  • Supported by:
    This work was supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 61472069, 61402089 and U1401256, China Postdoctoral Science Foundation under Grant Nos. 2019T120216 and 2018M641705, the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China under Grant Nos. N2019007, N180408019 and N180101028.

Massive data is written to blockchain systems for the destination of keeping safe. However, existing blockchain protocols still demand that each full node has to contain the entire chain. Most nodes quit because they are unable to grow their storage space with the size of data. As the number of nodes decreases, the security of blockchains would significantly reduce. We present SE-Chain, a novel scale-out blockchain model that improves storage scalability under the premise of ensuring safety and achieves efficient retrieval. The SE-Chain consists of three parts:the data layer, the processing layer and the storage layer. In the data layer, each transaction is stored in the AB-M tree (Adaptive Balanced Merkle tree), which adaptively combines the advantages of balanced binary tree (quick retrieval) and Merkle tree (quick verification). In the processing layer, the full nodes store the part of the complete chain selected by the duplicate ratio regulation algorithm. Meanwhile, the node reliability verification method is used for increasing the stability of full nodes and reducing the risk of imperfect data recovering caused by the reduction of duplicate number in the storage layer. The experimental results on real datasets show that the query time of SE-Chain based on the AB-M tree is reduced by 17% when 16 nodes exist. Overall, SE-Chain improves the storage scalability extremely and implements efficient querying of transactions.

Key words: SE-Chain; AB-M (adaptive balanced Merkle) tree; efficient retrieval; scale-out blockchain;

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