Journal of Computer Science and Technology ›› 2021, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (1): 4-32.doi: 10.1007/s11390-020-0780-z

Special Issue: Surveys; Computer Architecture and Systems

• Special Section on Memory-Centric System Research for High-Performance Computing • Previous Articles     Next Articles

A Survey of Non-Volatile Main Memory Technologies: State-of-the-Arts, Practices, and Future Directions

Hai-Kun Liu1,2,3,4, Senior Member, CCF, Member, ACM, IEEE, Di Chen1,2,3,4, Hai Jin1,2,3,4, Fellow, CCF, IEEE, Member, ACM, Xiao-Fei Liao1,2,3,4, Member, CCF, ACM, IEEE Binsheng He5, Member, ACM, IEEE, Kan Hu1,2,3,4, and Yu Zhang1,2,3,4, Member, CCF, ACM, IEEE   

  1. 1 National Engineering Research Center for Big Data Technology and System, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China;
    2 Services Computing Technology and System Laboratory, Huazhong University of Science and Technology Wuhan 430074, China;
    3 Cluster and Grid Computing Laboratory, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China;
    4 School of Computing Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China;
    5 School of Computing, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117418, Singapore
  • Received:2020-07-05 Revised:2020-12-15 Online:2021-01-05 Published:2021-01-23
  • About author:Hai-Kun Liu received his Ph.D. degree in computer architecture in Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Wuhan, in 2012. He was the recipient of Outstanding Doctoral Dissertation Award in Hubei, China. He is an associate professor in School of Computer Science and Technology, HUST, Wuhan. His current research interests include in-memory computing, virtualization technologies, cloud computing, and distributed systems. He is a senior member of CCF and a member of ACM and IEEE.
  • Supported by:
    This work is supported jointly by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grants Nos. 61672251, 61732010, 61825202, and 61929103.

Non-Volatile Main Memories (NVMMs) have recently emerged as a promising technology for future memory systems. Generally, NVMMs have many desirable properties such as high density, byte-addressability, non-volatility, low cost, and energy efficiency, at the expense of high write latency, high write power consumption, and limited write endurance. NVMMs have become a competitive alternative of Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM), and will fundamentally change the landscape of memory systems. They bring many research opportunities as well as challenges on system architectural designs, memory management in operating systems (OSes), and programming models for hybrid memory systems. In this article, we revisit the landscape of emerging NVMM technologies, and then survey the state-of-the-art studies of NVMM technologies. We classify those studies with a taxonomy according to different dimensions such as memory architectures, data persistence, performance improvement, energy saving, and wear leveling. Second, to demonstrate the best practices in building NVMM systems, we introduce our recent work of hybrid memory system designs from the dimensions of architectures, systems, and applications. At last, we present our vision of future research directions of NVMMs and shed some light on design challenges and opportunities.

Key words: non-volatile memory; persistent memory; hybrid memory systems; memory hierarchy;

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