Journal of Computer Science and Technology ›› 2020, Vol. 35 ›› Issue (4): 913-945.doi: 10.1007/s11390-020-9487-4

Special Issue: Artificial Intelligence and Pattern Recognition; Computer Graphics and Multimedia

• Artificial Intelligence and Pattern Recognition • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Active Learning Query Strategies for Classification, Regression, and Clustering: A Survey

Punit Kumar, Atul Gupta, Member, ACM, IEEE        

  1. Indian Institute of Information Technology, Design and Manufacturing, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh 482005, India
  • Received:2019-02-16 Revised:2020-01-13 Online:2020-07-20 Published:2020-07-20
  • About author:Punit Kumar received his B.Tech. degree in computer science and engineering from Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, Haryana, in 2011, and his M.Tech. degree in computer science and engineering from Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram University of Science and Technology, Murthal, Haryana, in 2014. He is currently pursuing his Ph.D. degree in computer science at Indian Institute of Information Technology, Design and Manufacturing, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh.

Generally, data is available abundantly in unlabeled form, and its annotation requires some cost. The labeling, as well as learning cost, can be minimized by learning with the minimum labeled data instances. Active learning (AL), learns from a few labeled data instances with the additional facility of querying the labels of instances from an expert annotator or oracle. The active learner uses an instance selection strategy for selecting those critical query instances, which reduce the generalization error as fast as possible. This process results in a refined training dataset, which helps in minimizing the overall cost. The key to the success of AL is query strategies that select the candidate query instances and help the learner in learning a valid hypothesis. This survey reviews AL query strategies for classification, regression, and clustering under the pool-based AL scenario. The query strategies under classification are further divided into:informative-based, representative-based, informative- and representative-based, and others. Also, more advanced query strategies based on reinforcement learning and deep learning, along with query strategies under the realistic environment setting, are presented. After a rigorous mathematical analysis of AL strategies, this work presents a comparative analysis of these strategies. Finally, implementation guide, applications, and challenges of AL are discussed.

Key words: active learning; active learning query strategy; active classification; active regression; active clustering; deep active learning;

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