Journal of Computer Science and Technology ›› 2023, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (2): 405-421.doi: 10.1007/s11390-022-2553-3

Special Issue: Computer Architecture and Systems

• Computer Architecture and Systems • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Parallel Software-Based Self-Testing with Bounded Model Checking for Kilo-Core Networks-on-Chip

Ying Zhang1 (张 颖), Member, CCF, IEEE, Peng-Fei Ji1 (季鹏飞), Pan-Wei Zhu1 (朱潘玮), Zebo Peng2, Senior Member, IEEE, Hua-Wei Li3 (李华伟), Fellow, CCF, and Jian-Hui Jiang1, * (江建慧), Senior Member, CCF   

  1. 1 School of Software Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China
    2 Department of Computer and Information Science, Linkoping University, Linkoping 58183, Sweden
    3 Institute of Computing Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China
  • Received:2022-06-01 Revised:2022-10-31 Accepted:2022-12-15 Online:2023-05-10 Published:2023-05-10
  • Contact: Jian-Hui Jiang
  • About author:Jian-Hui Jiang received his B.E., M.E. and Ph.D. degrees in traffic information engineering in Shanghai Railway University, Shanghai, in 1985, 1988, and 1999, respectively. He is currently a full professor of software engineering and a vice dean of the School of Software Engineering at Tongji University, Shanghai. His current research interests include dependable systems and networks, software reliability engineering, VLSI/SoC testing and fault-tolerance.
  • Supported by:
    This paper was supported in part by the National Key Research and Development Program of China under Grant No. 2020YFB 1600201, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) under Grant Nos. 61974105, 62090024, and U20A20202, and the Zhejiang Lab under Grant No. 2021KC0AB01.

Online testing is critical to ensuring reliable operations of the next generation of supercomputers based on a kilo-core network-on-chip (NoC) interconnection fabric. We present a parallel software-based self-testing (SBST) solution that makes use of the bounded model checking (BMC) technique to generate test sequences and parallel packets. In this method, the parallel SBST with BMC derives the leading sequence for each router’s internal function and detects all functionally-testable faults related to the function. A Monte-Carlo simulation algorithm is then used to search for the approximately optimum configuration of the parallel packets, which guarantees the test quality and minimizes the test cost. Finally, a multi-threading technology is used to ensure that the Monte-Carlo simulation can reach the approximately optimum configuration in a large random space and reduce the generating time of the parallel test. Experimental results show that the proposed method achieves a high fault coverage with a reduced test overhead. Moreover, by performing online testing in the functional mode with SBST, it effectively avoids the over-testing problem caused by functionally untestable turns in kilo-core NoCs.

Key words: software-based self-testing (SBST); parallel test; kilo-core networks-on-chip (NoCs); online testing;

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