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 Edited by: Editorial Board of Journal Of Computer Science and Technology P.O. Box 2704, Beijing 100190, P.R. China Sponsored by: Institute of Computing Technology, CAS & China Computer Federation Undertaken by: Institute of Computing Technology, CAS Published by: SCIENCE PRESS, BEIJING, CHINA Distributed by: China: All Local Post Offices Other Countries: Springer

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• Table of Content
 15 September 2006, Volume 21 Issue 5 Previous Issue    Next Issue
Articles
 Select High Performance General-Purpose Microprocessors: Past and Future Wei-Wu Hu, Rui Hou, Jun-Hua Xiao, and Long-Bin Zhang Journal of Computer Science and Technology, 2006, 21 (5): 631-640 .  Abstract   PDF(313KB) ( 1546 )   Chinese Summary It can be observed from looking backward that processor architecture is improved through spirally shifting from simple to complex and from complex to simple. Nowadays we are facing another shifting from complex to simple, and new innovative architecture will emerge to utilize the continuously increasing transistor budgets. The growing importance of wire delays, changing workloads, power consumption, and design/verification complexity will drive the forthcoming era of Chip Multiprocessors (CMPs). Furthermore, typical CMP projects both from industries and from academics are investigated. Through going into depths for some primary theoretical and implementation problems of CMPs, the great challenges and opportunities to future CMPs are presented and discussed. Finally, the Godson series microprocessors designed in China are introduced.
 Select Usability Issues of Grid System Software Zhi-Wei Xu, Hao-Jie Zhou, and Guo-Jie Li Journal of Computer Science and Technology, 2006, 21 (5): 641-647 .  Abstract   PDF(325KB) ( 1507 )   Chinese Summary This paper addresses the problem why grid technology has not spread as fast as the Web technology of the 1990's. In the past 10 years, considerable efforts have been put into grid computing. Much progress has been made and more importantly, fundamental challenges and essential issues of this field are emerging. This paper focuses on the area of grid system software research, and argues that usability of grid system software must be enhanced. It identifies four usability issues, drawing from international grid research experiences. It also presents advances by the Vega Grid team in addressing these challenges.
 Select Massive Storage Systems Dan Feng and Hai Jin Journal of Computer Science and Technology, 2006, 21 (5): 648-664 .  Abstract   PDF(673KB) ( 2133 )   Chinese Summary To accommodate the explosively increasing amount of data in many areas such as scientific computing and e-Business, physical storage devices and control components have been separated from traditional computing systems to become a scalable, intelligent storage subsystem that, when appropriately designed, should provide transparent storage interface, effective data allocation, flexible and efficient storage management, and other impressive features. The design goals and desirable features of such a storage subsystem include high performance, high scalability, high availability, high reliability and high security. Extensive research has been conducted in this field by researchers all over the world, yet many issues still remain open and challenging. This paper studies five different online massive storage systems and one offline storage system that we have developed with the research grant support from China. The storage pool with multiple network-attached RAIDs avoids expensive store-and-forward data copying between the server and storage system, improving data transfer rate by a factor of 2--3 over a traditional disk array. Two types of high performance distributed storage systems for local-area network storage are introduced in the paper. One of them is the {\it Virtual Interface Storage Architecture} (VISA) where VI as a communication protocol replaces the TCP/IP protocol in the system. VISA's performance is shown to achieve better than that of IP SAN by designing and implementing the vSCSI (VI-attached SCSI) protocol to support SCSI commands in the VI network. The other is a fault-tolerant parallel virtual file system that is designed and implemented to provide high I/O performance and high reliability. A global distributed storage system for wide-area network storage is discussed in detail in the paper, where a Storage Service Provider is added to provide storage service and plays the role of user agent for the storage system. Object based Storage Systems not only store data but also adopt the attributes and methods of objects that encapsulate the data. The adaptive policy triggering mechanism (APTM), which borrows proven machine learning techniques to improve the scalability of object storage systems, is the embodiment of the idea about smart storage device and facilitates the self-management of massive storage systems. A typical offline massive storage system is used to backup data or store documents, for which the tape virtualization technology is discussed. Finally, a domain-based storage management framework for different types of storage systems is presented in the paper.
 Select Study on Parallel Computing Guo-Liang Chen, Guang-Zhong Sun, Yun-Quan Zhang, and Ze-Yao Mo Journal of Computer Science and Technology, 2006, 21 (5): 665-673 .  Abstract   PDF(325KB) ( 2275 )   Chinese Summary In this paper, we present a general survey on parallel computing. The main contents include parallel computer system which is the hardware platform of parallel computing, parallel algorithm which is the theoretical base of parallel computing, parallel programming which is the software support of parallel computing. After that, we also introduce some parallel applications and enabling technologies. We argue that parallel computing research should form an integrated methodology of architecture --- algorithm --- programming --- application''. Only in this way, parallel computing research becomes continuous development and more realistic.
 Select Progress and Challenges in High Performance Computer Technology Xue-Jun Yang, Yong Dou, and Qing-Feng Hu Journal of Computer Science and Technology, 2006, 21 (5): 674-681 .  Abstract   PDF(284KB) ( 2076 )   Chinese Summary High performance computers provide strategic computing power in the construction of national economy and defense, and become one of symbols of the country's overall strength. Over 30 years, with the supports of governments, the technology of high performance computers is in the process of rapid development, during which the computing performance increases nearly 3 million times and the processors number expands over 10 hundred thousands times. To solve the critical issues related with parallel efficiency and scalability, scientific researchers pursued extensive theoretical studies and technical innovations. The paper briefly looks back the course of building high performance computer systems both at home and abroad, and summarizes the significant breakthroughs of international high performance computer technology. We also overview the technology progress of China in the area of parallel computer architecture, parallel operating system and resource management, parallel compiler and performance optimization, environment for parallel programming and network computing. Finally, we examine the challenging issues, "memory wall", system scalability and "power wall", and discuss the issues of high productivity computers, which is the trend in building next generation high performance computers.
 Select Development of Software Engineering: A Research Perspective Hong Mei, Dong-Gang Cao, and Fu-Qing Yang Journal of Computer Science and Technology, 2006, 21 (5): 682-696 .  Abstract   PDF(696KB) ( 2356 )   Chinese Summary In the past 40 years, software engineering has emerged as an important sub-field of computer science and has made significant contribution to the software industry. Now it is gradually becoming a new independent discipline. This paper presents a survey of software engineering development from a research perspective. Firstly, the history of software engineering is reviewed with focus on the driving forces of software technology, the software engineering framework and the milestones of software engineering development. Secondly, after reviewing the past academic efforts, the current research activities are surveyed and new challenges brought by Internet are analyzed. Software engineering researches and activities in China are also reviewed. The work in Peking University is described as a representative.
 Select Software Reliability Experimentation and Control Kai-Yuan Cai Journal of Computer Science and Technology, 2006, 21 (5): 697-707 .  Abstract   PDF(427KB) ( 1903 )   Chinese Summary This paper classifies software researches as theoretical researches, experimental researches, and engineering researches, and is mainly concerned with the experimental researches with focus on software reliability experimentation and control. The state-of-the-art of experimental or empirical studies is reviewed. A new experimentation methodology is proposed, which is largely theory discovering oriented. Several unexpected results of experimental studies are presented to justify the importance of software reliability experimentation and control. Finally, a few topics that deserve future investigation are identified.
 Select Some Issues on Computer Networks: Architecture and Key Technologies Guan-Qun Gu and Jun-Zhou Luo Journal of Computer Science and Technology, 2006, 21 (5): 708-722 .  Abstract   PDF(378KB) ( 5267 )   Chinese Summary The evolution of computer networks has experienced several major steps, and research focus of each step has been kept changing and evolving, from ARPANET to OSI/RM, then HSN (high speed network) and HPN (high performance network). During the evolution, computer networks represented by Internet have made great progress and gained unprecedented success. However, with the appearance and intensification of tussle, along with the three difficult problems (service customizing, resource control and user management) of modern network, it is found that traditional Internet and its architecture no longer meet the requirements of next generation network. Therefore, it is the next generation network that current Internet must evolve to. With the mindset of achieving valuable guidance for research on next generation network, this paper firstly analyzes some dilemmas facing current Internet and its architecture, and then surveys some recent influential research work and progresses in computer networks and related areas, including new generation network architecture, network resource control technologies, network management and security, distributed computing and middleware, wireless/mobile network, new generation network services and applications, and foundational theories on network modeling. Finally, this paper concludes that within the research on next generation network, more attention should be paid to the high availability network and corresponding architecture, key theories and supporting technologies.
 Select Research on Next-Generation Internet Architecture Jian-Ping Wu and Ke Xu Journal of Computer Science and Technology, 2006, 21 (5): 723-731 .  Abstract   PDF(543KB) ( 2083 )   Chinese Summary The primary problem during the evolvement of next-generation Internet is the contradiction between growing requirements for Internet and the insufficient development of network theory and technology. As the fundamental principles to guide the developing direction of Internet, the study of Internet architecture is always a focus in the research community. To address the core issue of network scalability, we propose multi-dimension scalable architecture of next-generation Internet, the main idea of which is to extend the single-dimension scalability of traditional Internet on interconnection to multi-dimension scalability of next-generation Internet. The multi-dimension scalability is composed of scale-scalability, performance-scalability, security-scalability, function-scalability, and service-scalability. We suggest five elements, namely, IPv6, authentic IPv6 addressing, scalable processing capacity of routers, end-to-end connectionless Quality-of-Service control, and 4over6 mechanism to realize the multi-dimension scalability. The current research results show that the multi-dimension scalable architecture composed of these five elements will bring great influence on next-generation Internet.
 Select Research on Network Architecture with Trustworthiness and Controllability Chuang Lin and Xue-Hai Peng Journal of Computer Science and Technology, 2006, 21 (5): 732-739 .  Abstract   PDF(318KB) ( 3428 )   Chinese Summary In this paper, the architecture of trustworthy and controllable networks is discussed to meet arising application requirements. After reviewing the lessons and experiences of success and failure in the Internet and summarizing related work, we analyze the basic targets of providing trustworthiness and controllability. Then, the anticipant architecture is introduced. Based on the resulting design, several trustworthy and controllable mechanisms are also discussed.
 Select Progress and Prospect of Some Fundamental Research on Information Security in China Deng-Guo Feng and Xiao-Yun Wang Journal of Computer Science and Technology, 2006, 21 (5): 740-755 .  Abstract   PDF(412KB) ( 1999 )   Chinese Summary With the development of network and information technologies, information security is more and more widely researched in China. To know where the work is and where it goes, we focus on comprehensively surveying the twenty years of important fundamental research by Chinese scholars, and giving, from our point of view, the significance as well as the outlook of future work. Some of the reviewed work, including the researches on fundamental theory of cryptography, cryptographic algorithm, security protocol, security infrastructure and information hiding, greatly advances the related sub-fields, and is highly recognized in and outside of China. Nevertheless, the overall work, we think, is still facing the problems of unbalanced development of sub-areas, limited scope of research, lack of systematic work and application, etc., leaving much room for improvement in the near future.
 Select Automated Reasoning and Equation Solving with the Characteristic Set Method Wen-Tsun Wu and Xiao-Shan Gao Journal of Computer Science and Technology, 2006, 21 (5): 756-764 .  Abstract   PDF(370KB) ( 1813 )   Chinese Summary A brief introduction to the characteristic set method is given for solving algebraic equation systems and then the method is extended to algebraic difference systems. The method can be used to decompose the zero set for a difference polynomial set in general form to the union of difference polynomial sets in triangular form. Based on the characteristic set method, a decision procedure for the first order theory over an algebraically closed field and a procedure to prove certain difference identities are proposed.
 Select Model Checking Data Consistency for Cache Coherence Protocols Hong Pan, Hui-Min Lin, and Yi Lv Journal of Computer Science and Technology, 2006, 21 (5): 765-775 .  Abstract   PDF(434KB) ( 1607 )   Chinese Summary A method for automatic verification of cache coherence protocols is presented, in which cache coherence protocols are modeled as concurrent value-passing processes, and control and data consistency requirement are described as formulas in first-order $\mu$-calculus. A model checker is employed to check if the protocol under investigation satisfies the required properties. Using this method a data consistency error has been revealed in a well-known cache coherence protocol. The error has been corrected, and the revised protocol has been shown free from data consistency error for any data domain size, by appealing to data independence technique.
 Select Some Issues in Quantum Information Theory Run-Yao Duan, Zheng-Feng Ji, Yuan Feng, and Ming-Sheng Ying Journal of Computer Science and Technology, 2006, 21 (5): 776-789 .  Abstract   PDF(418KB) ( 2267 )   Chinese Summary Quantum information theory is a new interdisciplinary research field related to quantum mechanics, computer science, information theory, and applied mathematics. It provides completely new paradigms to do information processing tasks by employing the principles of quantum mechanics. In this review, we first survey some of the significant advances in quantum information theory in the last twenty years. We then focus mainly on two special subjects: discrimination of quantum objects and transformations between entanglements. More specifically, we first discuss discrimination of quantum states and quantum apparatus in both global and local settings. Secondly, we present systematical characterizations and equivalence relations of several interesting entanglement transformation phenomena, namely entanglement catalysis, multiple-copy entanglement transformation, and partial entanglement recovery.
 Select Beyond Knowledge Engineering Ru-Qian Lu and Zhi Jin Journal of Computer Science and Technology, 2006, 21 (5): 790-799 .  Abstract   PDF(408KB) ( 1542 )   Chinese Summary Knowledge engineering stems from E. A. Figenbaum's proposal in 1977, but it will enter a new decade with the new challenges. This paper first summarizes three knowledge engineering experiments we have undertaken to show possibility of separating knowledge development from intelligent software development. We call it the ICAX mode of intelligent application software generation. The key of this mode is to generate knowledge base, which is the source of intelligence of ICAX software, independently and parallel to intelligent software development. That gives birth to a new and more general concept "knowware". Knowware is a commercialized knowledge module with documentation and intellectual property, which is computer operable, but free of any built-in control mechanism, meeting some industrial standards and embeddable in software/hardware. The process of development, application and management of knowware is called knowware engineering. Two different knowware life cycle models are discussed: the furnace model and the crystallization model. Knowledge middleware is a class of software functioning in all aspects of knowware life cycle models. Finally, this paper also presents some examples of building knowware in the domain of information system engineering.
 Select Multi-Instance Learning from Supervised View Zhi-Hua Zhou Journal of Computer Science and Technology, 2006, 21 (5): 800-809 .  Abstract   PDF(363KB) ( 1573 )   Chinese Summary In multi-instance learning, the training set comprises labeled bags that are composed of unlabeled instances, and the task is to predict the labels of unseen bags. This paper studies multi-instance learning from the view of supervised learning. First, by analyzing some representative learning algorithms, this paper shows that multi-instance learners can be derived from supervised learners by shifting their focuses from the discrimination on the instances to the discrimination on the bags. Second, considering that ensemble learning paradigms can effectively enhance supervised learners, this paper proposes to build multi-instance ensembles to solve multi-instance problems. Experiments on a real-world benchmark test show that ensemble learning paradigms can significantly enhance multi-instance learners.
 Select Progress and Challenge of Artificial Intelligence Zhong-Zhi Shi and Nan-Ning Zheng Journal of Computer Science and Technology, 2006, 21 (5): 810-822 .  Abstract   PDF(438KB) ( 6692 )   Chinese Summary Artificial Intelligence (AI) is generally considered to be a subfield of computer science, that is concerned to attempt simulation, extension and expansion of human intelligence. Artificial intelligence has enjoyed tremendous success over the last fifty years. In this paper we only focus on visual perception, granular computing, agent computing, semantic grid. Human-level intelligence is the long-term goal of artificial intelligence. We should do joint research on basic theory and technology of intelligence by brain science, cognitive science, artificial intelligence and others. A new cross discipline intelligence science is undergoing a rapid development. Future challenges are given in final section.
 Select Database Research: Achievements and Challenges Shan Wang, Xiao-Yong Du, Xiao-Feng Meng, and Hong Chen Journal of Computer Science and Technology, 2006, 21 (5): 823-837 .  Abstract   PDF(498KB) ( 1435 )   Chinese Summary Database system is the infrastructure of the modern information system. The R\&D in the database system and its technologies is one of the important research topics in the field. The database R\&D in China took off later but it moves along by giant steps. This report presents the achievements Renmin University of China (RUC) has made in the past 25 years and at the same time addresses some of the research projects we, RUC, are currently working on. The National Natural Science Foundation of China supports and initiates most of our research projects and these successfully conducted projects have produced fruitful results.
 Select Chinese Information Processing and Its Prospects Sheng Li and Tie-Jun Zhao Journal of Computer Science and Technology, 2006, 21 (5): 838-846 .  Abstract   PDF(285KB) ( 2223 )   Chinese Summary The paper presents some main progresses and achievements in Chinese information processing. It focuses on six aspects, i.e., Chinese syntactic analysis, Chinese semantic analysis, machine translation, information retrieval, information extraction, and speech recognition and synthesis. The important techniques and possible key problems of the respective branch in the near future are discussed as well.
 Select Digital Differential Geometry Processing Xin-Guo Liu, Hu-Jun Bao, and Qun-Sheng Peng Journal of Computer Science and Technology, 2006, 21 (5): 847-860 .  Abstract   PDF(539KB) ( 1578 )   Chinese Summary The theory and methods of digital geometry processing has been a hot research area in computer graphics, as geometric models serves as the core data for 3D graphics applications. The purpose of this paper is to introduce some recent advances in digital geometry processing, particularly mesh fairing, surface parameterization and mesh editing, that heavily use differential geometry quantities. Some related concepts from differential geometry, such as normal, curvature, gradient, Laplacian and their counterparts on digital geometry are also reviewed for understanding the strength and weakness of various digital geometry processing methods.
 Select Fingerprint-Based Identity Authentication and Digital Media Protection in Network Environment Jie Tian, Liang Li, and Xin Yang Journal of Computer Science and Technology, 2006, 21 (5): 861-870 .  Abstract   PDF(464KB) ( 1515 )   Chinese Summary Current information security techniques based on cryptography are facing a challenge of lacking the exact connection between cryptographic key and legitimate users. Biometrics, which refers to distinctive physiological and beha-vioral characteristics of human beings, is a more reliable indicator of identity than traditional authentication system such as passwords-based or tokens-based. However, researches on the seamless integration biometric technologies, e.g., fingerprint recognition, with cryptosystem have not been conducted until recent years. In this paper, we provide an overview of recent advancements in fingerprint recognition algorithm with a special focus on the enhancement of low-quality fingerprints and the matching of the distorted fingerprint images, and discuss two representative methods of key release and key generation scheme based on fingerprints. We also propose two solutions for the application in identity authentication without trustworthy third-party in the network environment, and application in digital media protection, aiming to assure the secrecy of fingerprint template and fingerprint-based user authentication.
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